Crime and Deviance
Crime and Deviance
“…for many young people, the internet has already all but replaced children’s television. According to recent research by Ofcom, British 12- to 15-year-olds are more familiar with YouTube than with the BBC or ITV, while the amount of television watched by four- to 15-year-olds has fallen by 25% since 2010″.
The article explores how children are exposed to lots of content on YouTube which most adults would consider inappropriate:
“Very young children,” James Bridle writes, are “being deliberately targeted with content which will traumatise and disturb them, via networks which are extremely vulnerable to … abuse.” Given the scale of YouTube, he went on, “human oversight is simply impossible”.
Marcel Mauss (1872-1950)
Culture – generated meanings from living together.
Ideologies become embedded into us which appear natural.
The social is expressed through the collective which becomes inscribed in the body.
Things that appear natural are not. Even simple things such as swimming are done differently in every culture.
Pierre Bourdieu – ‘The Peasant and his Body’
‘Habitus’ – the socially acquired embodied systems of dispositions history is turned into nature.
Gender – what does the way we act say about the embodiment of gender?
Iris Marion Young – Throwing like a Girl’
Strongly disagrees with Erwin Strauss who argues that girls and boys throw differently due to biology.
‘Every human existence is defined through its situation’ (Simone de Beauvoir). Femininity is a set of structures particular to a culture.
‘We feel as though we must have our attention directed upon our bodies to make sure they are doing what we wish them to do, rather than paying attention to what to do through our bodies’.
Women fail to make full use of spatial and lateral positions – sitting, standing etc.
Women are aware of being objectified (male gaze).
Gender scripts are very defined and hard to break – women who do try and break out of them are often publicly chastised and seen as a deviant. Famous female sports players such as the Williams sisters have often been denounced for being too masculine and it being unfair for the other female players!
Wonder Woman is a very good contemporary example of a more powerful representation of females which has been welcomed by many female audiences. However, the film still clearly sexualises the women – so have things changed that much?
How do these ideas link to the family topic?
Embodiment of gender scripts clearly relates to the feminist argument that patriarchal biological determinist arguments are unfounded. New Right and functionalists argue that it is natural for women to fulfill the expressive role but Young and Mauss in particular help explain why this is not the case. Women are socialised to be caring, to be feminine and gentle. There is nothing natural about it. There is no reason why men cannot be socialised in this way too and increasingly with the rise of the new man, it appears that this is already happening to some extent. Feminism has had a massive impact upon how British people view the roles within the family and without doubt, many males are happy to pursue a much more expressive role than their forefathers.
Hundreds of thousands of UK families will be affected by cuts of £12bn in the UK’s welfare budget announced by the chancellor.
“Imagine a society without fathers; without marriage (or divorce); one in which nuclear families don’t exist. Grandmother sits at the head of the table; her sons and daughters live with her, along with the children of those daughters, following the maternal bloodline. Men are little more than studs, sperm donors who inseminate women but have, more often than not, little involvement in their children’s upbringing…”
Read on: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/apr/01/the-kingdom-of-women-the-tibetan-tribe-where-a-man-is-never-the-boss?CMP=Share_AndroidApp_Email
This report highlights key findings from the 2017 Modern Families Index – the most comprehensive survey of working parents in the UK. It looks at how families manage the balance between family life and work.
Here is a suggested essay structure for:
Evaluate the impact of state policies and laws on family life (20 marks)
Introduction: Give a brief overview of the main ‘themes’ in family policy over the last century. For example, the Beveridge Report set the foundation for a new age whereby the state was willing to take (some) responsibility for families in the UK; Labour introduced a range of liberal policies in the 1960s which arguably have had the most significant impact on family structure; influenced by the New Right, Thatcher attempted to re-adjust the balance of some of these policies by slowing down the extent of divorce reform and by prizing the nuclear family as the ideal family. New Labour introduced a ‘third way’ which was tried to implement stricter welfare policies whilst still retaining liberal attitudes towards family diversity. Cameron’s Conservative Party introduced a number of liberal policies (influenced by the EU perhaps) but still retained the familial ideology of the New Right.
Part 1: The 60s and early 70s Discuss the impact of some of the acts of this period from a feminist and conversely, a New Right perspective – The Abortion Act 1967; The Equal Pay Act 1970; Divorce Reform Act 1969; The Sexual Offences Act 1967. Please refer back to your New Right and feminist notes to help you with this.
Part 2: The 80s (Thatcher) Describe Thatcher’s ideological stance (New Right) and analyse a couple of policies such as her attitude towards the mooted divorce reform act. How might feminists react to this period?
Part 3: New Labour (Blair) Describe the ‘third way’. Working Families Tax Credit 1997; Sure Start (1998);
Part 4: Conservatives (Cameron): Troubled families programme (2011) and paternity leave
Conclusion: what is the future for the British family?